Tuesday, June 2, 2020

Indoors, Outdoors

Photo by Huy Phan from Pexels

Plants for both spaces

Indoor plants are wonderful. Houseplants brighten any room, add a little color, clean the air, and lend a touch of elegance. What’s not to love? Wouldn’t it be great, though, if you could move them about from indoors to the outdoors, and back again any time of year?  You could enjoy a little variety in your d├ęcor, and freshen the look of your garden at will.

Unfortunately, most of those sold as indoor plants are native to the tropics, or their ancestors were. They’re simply not suited to growing outdoors in temperate climates. There are, however, very many species that thrive indoors, and are hardy enough to be moved outdoors to the garden, patio or deck. Here are a few to consider:

Carex laxiculmis 'Hobb'

Carex ‘Bunny Blue®’ 

Carex laxiculmis 'Hobb – Bunny Blue® Sedge – is native to Eastern North America. Foliage is evergreen when grown indoors, outdoors in warmer climates and semi-evergreen in the northern states.  This beauty has graceful, arching blue-green to blue-gray foliage, 1/2" wide, 12"-14" long.  Carex Bunny Blue® grows in clumps and spreads slowly to 12"-15" across.  Flowers are yellow but insignificant, and appear in late Spring.  Bunny Blue® will grow in average potting soil, with adequate irrigation, but really thrives in moist to wet soil. You can’t over-water it! Grow it outdoors in USDA climate zones 5-9.

Creeping Fig

Creeping Fig

Creeping Fig – Ficus pumila – is an elegant vine that excels in container gardens, hanging baskets, and topiaries. Evergreen foliage makes it a lovely subject year around. Creeping Fig is hardy in USDA climate zones 8-11.

Christmas Fern

Christmas Fern

Christmas FernPolystichum acrosticoides – is a native, evergreen beauty that brightens the winter landscape with its glossy deep green fronds. For generations fronds were cut and gathered in winter to decorate the home for Thanksgiving and Christmas. Christmas Fern thrives when grown indoors in potting soil with adequate watering, so you can decorate your home for the holidays any time of year. Grow it outdoors in USDA climate zones 3-9.

Hedera helix 'Ivalace'

Ivalace Ivy

Hedera helix ‘Ivalace’! With its curly leaves and compact habit, the American Ivy Society gave it the 2011 Ivy of The Year Award. Despite its beautiful appearance, it's tough. It's great as an indoor houseplant, useful in container gardens, topiaries, and even as a ground cover for small areas outdoors. It’s hardy in USDA climate zones 5-10. If you want an ivy with more vigor, any of the other varieties of Hedera will perform well indoors and out.



Lily-Of-The-ValleyConvallaria majalis – is very easy to grow from bare-root rhizome divisions. Fragrant, bell-shaped flowers perfume the indoors. It is effective in container gardens, fragrance gardens, and naturalized outdoors in shade gardens and woodland settings. When the outdoor site is to its liking, Lily-Of-The-Valley spreads rapidly. Lily-of-the-Valley is hardy outdoors in USDA climate zones 4-8.

Liriope muscari 'Christmas Tree'


Oh, my! There are so many varieties of Liriope muscari to choose from. I prefer the ones with deep green foliage and larger flower spikes for indoor gardens. Those with variegated foliage sometimes lose their color contrast in shady areas. Liriope graces the home with tall, blade-like leaves, adding some height and a nice texture to containers of mixed species. Liriope is generally hardy in USDA climate zones 5-11.

Dwarf Mondo


My favorite mondo for container gardens is Ophiopogon japonicus ‘Nana’, or Dwarf Mondo. Short, evergreen blades have the appearance of turf-grass. It thrives in shade. It’s sometimes used as a bonsai subject, or in containers with larger specimens. Mondo is hardy outdoors in USDA climate zones 6-10.

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Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Have you considered growing a pollinator garden?

Photo by Ersin Aslan from Pexels

Have you ever considered making a place in your landscape specifically for native pollinators? Doing so can help preserve those that are struggling to exist. You might not think of pollinators such as bees,  wasps and butterflies as being under threat, but many are. We usually blame overuse of insecticides as being the culprit, but there are others. Diseases, parasites and predators take their toll. By providing a pollinator-friendly habitat, you help them thrive, as well as enjoy their presence. You also gain a sense of pride in doing good for the environment.

You don't need much space to establish a pollinator garden. A few plants on your deck or patio can attract them. If you have a large area available, by all means, use it.

Pollinators have three basic needs, common even to you and me - food, water, and shelter for places to hide and begin their little families.

Food Sources - Host Plants

We picture bees and butterflies feeding on nectar from flowers, but juvenile pollinators don't do that. Young ones feed on stems and foliage, and not always of the same plants. Proper food supplies should include both.

To determine exactly which you'll need to plant may require a bit of study on your part. Good plants for pollinators include aromatic herbs, annuals, perennials, and even some weeds. GoGardenNow.com features plant collections for butterflies and other pollinators. Plant a wide variety. Select species that will provide blooms throughout the growing season. Research the species of pollinators commonly found in your area, then provide the foods they enjoy.

Remember that native pollinators often prefer native plants, so be sure to include some in or around your garden. It's not a good idea to gather plants from the wild. Some may be endangered and protected. Sow seed where possible. For mature plants, search for those nurseries that specialize in native species. There are a growing number of them. Native Plant societies can help you find sources.


Pollinators need water. You'll often find bees gathered along the edges of bird baths. Butterflies will cluster around mud puddles, birdbaths, and even dung. Be sure to provide water sources for them. Still, shallow water is best. You needn't provide the dung.

Shelter, Nesting Sites and Materials

You'd be surprised at how resourceful little creatures can be when it comes to establishing homes.

That aside, pollinators will burrow in plant stems, hide in flower pots, small brush piles, and even nest in bundled drinking straws. Dryer lint, cotton balls, and the mud from puddles will be used for building materials.

After providing for your pollinators' needs, please be careful not to lure them to destruction. By that I mean, avoid using pesticides and herbicides in or around your pollinator garden. Both organic and synthetic pesticides can be harmful. Herbicides can kill the very plants you provided for pollinators' benefit.

Pollinator gardens fascinate young and old, but especially the young. Remember how enthralled you were as a child while watching butterflies and bees? Pass the feeling along to your own children, grandchildren, or even to kids in the neighborhood. You and they will be delighted that you did.

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Sunday, May 3, 2020

Life Stages of Butterflies, and Plants to Attract Them.

Tiger swallowtail utterfly on lantana

If there were beauty contests for insects, adult butterflies would win every time. But their time spent in glamorous array is incredibly short – usually for only a few weeks. The rest of their lives are spent in less dramatic forms: egg, caterpillar, and chrysalis.

“The caterpillar does all the work, but the butterfly gets all the publicity.”
― George Carlin

Butterfly eggs are laid by adult female butterflies on plants, but not just any plants. The plants, known as “host plants”, are chosen for their desirability as food for the caterpillars which eventually emerge from the eggs. Which are desirable? They choose those they are accustomed to by their very nature, usually the ones endemic or similar to those found in the caterpillars’ native habitats.

Butterfly chrysalisAfter the eggs hatch, the caterpillars eat, and eat, and eat a lot more. Gardeners who have had their cole crops decimated by cabbageworms know it well. They gorge themselves because they are preparing for the next stage of their lives sequestered in the chrysalis. The chrysalis looks sort of like a sarcophagus. It is within the chrysalis that the caterpillar changes into a butterfly. It’s for that reason, I think, that the butterfly’s emergence is compared to resurrection from the dead.

After the metamorphosis, the adult butterfly feeds on fruits or flower nectar. These may be the same as the host plant, or many others.

When planting a butterfly garden, be sure to include species that are native to your area. While non-native species might be visually appealing to you, your butterflies might turn up their proboscises at them.

To help you select plants for your butterflies, we at GoGardenNow.com have created a category of plants that attract butterflies. Some serve as host plants; some serve as food plants. You should include both in your garden. Not only that, but we’ve listed specific butterfly species known to be attracted to each of the plants in the category.

Zebra Heliconian butterfly on lantana
For example, if you go to the Lantana listing, you'll read, "Attracted species include Spicebush Swallowtail, Zebra Heliconian, American Lady, Cabbage White, Clouded Skipper, Fiery Skipper, Dun Skipper, Crossline Skipper, Eufala Skipper, Least Skipper, Ocola Skipper, Pecks Skipper, Zabulon Skipper, Tawny-edged Skipper, Silver-Spotted Skipper, Orange Sulphur, Clouded Sulphur, Pipevine Swallowtail, Zebra Swallowtail, Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Black Swallowtail, Gray Hairstreak, Red-Banded Hairstreak, Great Southern White, Variegated Fritillary, Great Spangled Fritillary, Hayhurst’s Scallopwing, Horace’s Duskywing, Wild Indigo Duskywing, Little Glassywing, Monarch, Painted Lady, Pearl Crescent, Sachem, Silvery Checkerspot."

The lists are not exhaustive, but should be helpful.

If you have a certain butterfly in mind that you want to feed, simply go to the Home Page, enter your butterfly name, and Search. A list of particular plants will pop up. For example, enter the word “monarch”, and this list will appear.

Finch on Echinacea seeds
When your garden is filled with your local butterflies’ favorite foods, you’ll have a lovely display of flowers and butterflies, too. But there could be an added bonus - birds! Yes, many of the same flowers attract birds, as well. Echinacea, for example, attracts a whole host of butterflies, and the flowers gone to seed feed the birds. So, let the seed-heads mature for the birds.

As your garden appeals to birds and butterflies, you’ll help support both, and enjoy your beautiful guests.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Going Downhill Fast?

Photo by Lavsgirl

When mowing is no longer an option.

Frankly, I’ve not had to mow a grassy slope since I left East Tennessee three dozen years ago. But a homeowner’s recent question got me to thinking about it again. I remember well the difficulty of pushing a lawnmower up and chasing it down, or maneuvering it across an embankment. An older neighbor used to tie a rope to the handle of his mower, then let it down and pull it up the grade repeatedly to get the job done. Neither method was ideal.

Lawn grass is popular because it covers quickly, and usually controls erosion effectively. But mowing it is the problem. There might be better ways to landscape a slope. However, a few problems would need to be solved: erosion (drainage and hillside stabilization), plant selection, and usage (function). To quote the architect, Louis Sullivan, “form ever follows function.” Here are a few.

Build a retaining wall

Retaining walls serve two purposes: to control erosion, and to modify the grade. After constructing the wall, the up-slope area is back-filled to level-out the grade (more or less), so all purposes are achieved.

.Andrew Shiva / WikipediaA grand variation of the retaining wall comes to mind that was used on great French, Scottish and English estates - the HA-HA. The retaining wall was built (as mentioned above), and the lower area was leveled out (more or less). This provided a clear view across the top of the wall to the vista beyond. It kept sheep and cattle from roaming across the lawn and pooping. It looked as though the wall wasn’t even there, until one attempted to run across the lawn and – surprise – suddenly dropped out of sight. HAHA!!!

Such a project is bound to be costly, so less expensive walls should be investigated. Mortar-less walls of stacked boulders might do.

Build terraces

Photo by Thanhhoa TranTerraces are basically a series of lower retaining walls made by digging into the hillside to make flat beds. Each bed being lower than the one above. This method is as old as the hills, if you’ll excuse the pun. Farmers worldwide have used these. The most notable are the rice terraces of Asia.

Each level of your terraces may provide several areas for herb and flower gardens, shrub beds, wall plantings, and even seating areas. The terraces can be interconnected with a series of steps for easy access.

If your site is not too steep, you might elect to dispense with the terrace walls, but plant rows of deep-rooted shrubs and ground covers to hold the terraces in place.

Provide drainage

Hillside dry creek drainage from Pexels.comWhenever soil is disturbed, the hydrologic aspect of the site is changed. Where water once flowed, it flows elsewhere, or nowhere. Something has to be done about the water to prevent gullies from forming due to rapid water flow, or puddles if it goes nowhere. Certainly, drainage tiles or pipes can mitigate the problem, but more attractive solutions might include dry creek or stream beds filled with rocks to direct water flow downward, or rain gardens to catch the water and let it percolate into the soil.

Plant the hillside

Photo by Jay Mullings on Unsplash
If you don’t intend to use it for any other purpose, you can simply plant the hillside with deep-rooted species. A combination could include shrubs, herbs, ground cover perennials, vines and grasses. Drought-tolerant species such as junipers, lantana, echinacea, yarrow, ivies, liriope, vinca and creeping phlox would be good selections for the dryer, upper areas of the slope. Moisture-loving species such as daylilies, rudbeckia, liriope (again) and rubus should be planted nearer the middle and bottom. If water tends to stand in some of the lower areas, bog-type plants such as Siberian iris, sedges and Japanese Sweet Flag would be appropriate. Perhaps there are plants native to your area that would do the trick.

When the problems of drainage (erosion and hillside stabilization) and plant selection have been solved, your maintenance problems should be very much reduced.

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Friday, March 20, 2020

"I Know A Hill Where Periwinkle Grows"

Just outside my window

Vinca minor closeup

Periwinkle’s evergreen
Periwinkle’s strong,
Under the snow it lives
All Winter long.

When the first thaw come
Periwinkle’s seen
In all its myrtle grace
Clear, dark green.

I know a hill where 
Periwinkle grows,
A little hill that
The morning knows.
- Periwinkle, Louise Driscoll (1875-1957)

Doesn’t that make you want some in your garden? You should consider it. Periwinkle, also known as vinca, is very easy to grow. As I write this in March, periwinkle is blooming up a storm

As noted in Driscoll’s poem, periwinkle is an evergreen ground cover vine. It may be found growing nearly world-wide. Though no one is sure, it’s believed the word, Vinca, is derived from a Latin word meaning "to bind." Vinca is a trailing plant, and the runners root as they extend. The long, tough runners were used in some cultures to form rope.

Mature height as a ground cover is usually from 8" to 18". Flower colors range from blue to white or burgundy, depending upon the cultivar. Vinca prefers moist soil in partial shade to full shade, but will also tolerate sun and drought. It is deer resistant.

There are two species of Vinca commonly available: Vinca major and Vinca minor. Louise Driscoll wrote about V. minor.

Vinca minor is commonly known as dwarf periwinkle, creeping myrtle, or death myrtle. It does contain toxic substances. I’m sure that’s why the name figured in the Harry Potter story with the ghost, Moaning Myrtle.

Vinca foliage is about 3/4" wide and 1" long. Mature height is about 4". Foliage is deep green and shiny. It is hardy in USDA climate zones 4 through 8. Soil pH should range from 6.1 to 7.8.

Find Your USDA Plant Hardiness Zone By Zip Code

Vinca minor on hillsideAs a ground cover, vinca is effective for erosion control on hillsides. If planting it for erosion control, try to mitigate the water flow until the plants are established, otherwise the water might dislodge them.

Periwinkle does well in shallow soil, even where tree roots render it difficult to cultivate. But, if possible, prepare the planting bed by cultivating about 4" deep, removing all traces of weeds. Composted manure may be incorporated into the soil. Plant 6" to 12" apart. If fertilizer is used, incorporate 10-10-10 fertilizer at a rate of no more 2 lbs. per 100 square feet into the top 4" of soil. Avoid synthetic fertilizers contacting any part of your plants.

Periwinkle can be planted any time of year, even bare root plants. Even so, you should water occasionally until the plants become established to avoid drought stress. Maintenance is minimal. Periwinkle has few pest and disease problems, and tolerates poor soil.

Because it is so common, folks often overlook it, unless it’s found growing where they don’t want it. As I’ve often said, “it does what a ground cover is supposed to do; it covers ground.” Periwinkle is popular precisely because it is so effective, attractive, and requires practically no maintenance.

Return to Vinca at GoGardenNow.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Great Garden Visits - Bellagio Conservatory & Botanical Garden

Carousel in the Bellagio Conservatory

Around the circle.

A Grand Circle tour is not complete without visiting the Bellagio Conservatory and Botanical Garden. That’s what we discovered. Our aim was to explore some of the well-known and not-so-well-known gardens along the Grand Circle route through the Southwest, to study low-maintenance xeriscapes and fascinating plants. At the end, we included a walk through the high-maintenance Bellagio.

It made sense to begin and end at Las Vegas. The flights were cheap. The temperature in May was bearable. The accommodation at an AirBnB in Henderson, NV was pleasant. Las Vegas was the ideal point of departure and return.

Going against the flow

We found ourselves doing that a lot, no matter which direction we walked. We ducked the rave crowd streaming to the Electric Daisy Carnival.

Photo by Wendy Wei from Pexels"Does her mother know she's dressed like that?", asked a grandmother nearby.

"She might be a mother", said another.

We strove against the tide crossing pedestrian bridges, and wondered "Where are all these people going? What do they know that we don’t know?" We wriggled away from the crush around the Fountains of Bellagio. When others were headed for the slot machines and shows, we were looking for gardens and a slower pace. As it turned out, so were some others.

About the Conservatory and Garden

We found the conservatory across the lobby from the front desk of the Bellagio. A glass ceiling rises up to 50 feet and is supported by a sculpted green metal verdigris framework set in floral patterns. Several garden-themed shops surround the space.

Everything is covered with flowers. It reminded me of the floats in the Rose Bowl parade. A large staff maintains the garden, changing designs with the seasons and events. The seasons begin with the Chinese New Year, followed by spring cherry blossoms. Flowers, foliage, textures and fragrances complement all seasons. As advertised, “This ever-changing natural display is the single most significant component of Bellagio’s design, fulfilling the promise of creating the most extraordinary hotel in the world.”

Here’s a taste of what’s in store.


Makes you want to see it for yourself, doesn't it?

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Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Number One Rule For Vegetable Gardening - Make It Easy On Yourself

Photo by Binyamin Mellish from Pexels

Make it easy on yourself. 

That’s the number one rule in my book of gardening notes to self. When garden work becomes more of a chore than a pleasure, you’ll regret that you started. When the hardship is greater than the reward, you’ll likely become disheartened and walk away. Disappointment and a twinge of guilt might haunt you. To avoid those outcomes, I’ve a few suggestions.

Choose the right site.

The wrong location will doom you, either to failure or to extra labor. Keep in mind that:

  • The location should be convenient;
  • Vegetable gardens require plenty of sun – 6 to 8 hours per day;
  • Native soil should be well-drained, deep, fertile, free from rocks and other obstructions;
  • A reliable source of water should be nearby.

Any of those conditions may not be perfect in your case. They can be mitigated somewhat, but that takes work. Do the best you can.

Plot the right size.

The plot size can be determined:

  • By your surroundings; 
  • By your available time and interest;
  • By your age or energy level;
  • By your goals.

If you live in an apartment, your garden might be limited to a few planters on your balcony, unless you have access to a community garden area.

Early enthusiasm for your project can easily exceed available time, and succumb to waning interest, the constraints of age and energy. Studying seed catalogs in January is a lot like shopping Sears Wishbook before Christmas; you gotta have it all. Your plot size shouldn’t exceed your personal resources. Get real!

For most of us, the goal is pleasure, a large measure of satisfaction, and some tasty food for the table. A small garden will usually suffice, and should be manageable.

If your goal is self-sufficiency, you have a long row to hoe, so to speak. That’s a subject best left for another time.

Select the right plants.

The right plants should:

  • Be easy to grow;
  • Require NO fungicides, and pesticides (IMO);
  • Appeal to your taste.

It might take a little research to determine what will be easy to grow in your area. You’ll need to know:

  • Your climate zone;
  • Your atmospheric conditions;
  • Your neighbors’ successes and failures.

Climate zone is important. For example, if winters are cold and summers are short, you’ll need cold-hardy plants, and summer crops that only require short growing seasons. Check out the USDA Interactive Climate Zone map.

Atmospheric conditions can include such factors as rain, drought and humidity.  There's not much you can do about them. Plant diseases and crop failure are very often caused by such. Plant selections must accommodate them.

There’s no substitute for visiting with your gardening neighbors. Those who’ve lived in the area for long should be able to give you an earful, or you can just peer over their fences to see what’s looking good.

My advice is to plant what you know will be easy to grow. In south Georgia that would be okra, Jerusalem artichokes (sunchokes), Seminole pumpkins, purple hull peas and corn. (For real success, study your area for edible weeds.) But if you’re filled with inexhaustible hope in the face of disappointment, grow whatever you want.

There’s no accounting for taste. You and your family will like certain vegetables, or you won’t. For example, my family doesn’t care much for okra, though I disagree. My wife thinks Jerusalem artichokes are weeds, though I disagree. Don’t bother planting crops that few will eat.

Before you begin planning your vegetable garden, remember my number one rule; make it easy on yourself.

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Monday, January 13, 2020

It's Seed Catalog Time

Photo by Kaboompics .com from Pexels

It's seed catalog time! Crocuses, winter aconite, cornelian cherry and robins tell us that spring is near. But seed catalogs in winter are earlier harbingers. From the mailbox, they tend to migrate throughout the house, first to the kitchen table, then to the bedside table, and finally to the reading basket beside the commode.

A gardening friend asked me whether I had perused all the new issues. She was excited about the AAS winners and other new plants on the market, especially the grafted tomatoes. (Tomato grafting is a process by which favorite old varieties are spliced onto new, disease resistant rootstock.) I confessed that I had not, though not for want of desire. There are just too many to investigate.

As we considered grafted tomatoes, my mind wandered to recall names of some old-fashioned varieties. (To be polite, I didn't let on that my mind was wandering.) There's Arkansas Traveler, Beefsteak, Kimberly, Brandywine, Bull's Heart, Ox Heart, Italian Plum, Mortgage Lifter, to name a few. I don't know why such varieties were abandoned. Perhaps varieties with better taste and disease resistance were bred and widely accepted. Perhaps newer varieties were highly promoted and popularized disproportionately to their worth. It may be that tomato grafting will allow some of those heirloom varieties to be enjoyed again. Johnny's Selected Seeds is a good source.

If you would like to explore the world of heirloom tomatoes, check out Gary Ibsen's Tomato Fest. I've had no experience with the company, but it looks promising. Browsing their web site has whetted my appetite for home-grown tomatoes like the ones in my grandmother's garden.

I've always had a nostalgic place in my heart for whatever good that was lost. It was touched again one fall when we came upon a roadside stand with a pile of Kershaw melons and Candy Roaster squash. I hadn't grown any for over 25 years. It was as though I had found treasure. We stopped and bought fewer than I actually wanted, but all that we could handle for a few weeks. Of course, we kept the seed for planting in spring.

If Kershaws, Candy Roasters and other heirlooms interest you, check out Seed Saver's Exchange. Diane and Kent Whealy founded the non-profit organization in 1975. I learned about Seed Saver's Exchange in the late '70s. Though I haven't been involved as a member, I've appreciated their work and I recommend Seed Saver's Exchange to anyone who seems interested.

So, during seed catalog time, I wouldn't be surprised if your mind is wandering and wondering if you can make room in your garden for heirloom vegetables and fruits. Of course you can.

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Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Who's afraid of the big, bad coywolf?

Coywolf hybrid  

There was a time when wolves were generally feared. They roamed wild across continents. Travelers feared for their own safety. Herders feared for their flocks. As marauders, wolves were ensconced in history, legend, and popular stories.

They were hunted relentlessly. Now these shy and reclusive creatures are seldom encountered, except in remote wilderness areas.
Not so with their relative - the coyote. While shy, coyotes are not so withdrawn, more comfortable with life at the edge of human civilization, or closer. 
Sometimes their paths cross. The wolf whistles. The other appears coy and blushes. Animal instincts take over. They are soon the proud parents of little coywolves.
This happens more often than one might expect. It's believed that most of the "coyotes" seen in the eastern North America are actually coywolves. Not only that. They are probably hybrids of wolves, coyotes and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), and may number in the millions.
Not surprisingly, coywolves will possess characteristics of their parents. This makes them very adaptable and wide-ranging. They've been spotted as far south as Virginia. No doubt their range will increase.
Have you seen a coyote by the road? Did one just cross your yard? It was probably a coywolf.
What is to be done if coywolves have been spotted in your area? Should they be feared? A little research on the internet, and common sense, reveals the following:
  • If one crosses your path, give it plenty of space.
  • Avoid physical contact. Coywolves are wild animals. As such they can attack, and injure or kill. They can also carry diseases.
  • Avoid threatening postures if one crosses your path. Do NOT make eye contact. Do NOT turn and run. DO back away slowly.
  • Remove food sources.
    • Clean up around dumpsters and trash cans.
    • Avoid feeding pets outdoors.
    • Secure small or weak farm animals indoors at night, including poultry and young livestock.
    • Bring pets indoors at night.
  • Supervise children when they're playing outdoors, or have them play in fenced enclosures. Warn youngsters against approaching them.
  • Notify animal control authorities.
Be cautious; be safe. 

For further reading:

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